A more general summary: https://tech.europace.de/froscon-2018/ of the conference written in German. Below a more detailed summary of the keynote by Lorena Jaume-Palasi.
In her keynote "Blessed by the algorithm - the computer says no!" Lorena detailed the intersection of ethics and technology when it comes to automated decision making systems. As much as humans with a technical training shy away from questions related to ethics, humans trained in ethics often shy away from topics that involve a technical layer. However as technology becomes more and more ingrained in everyday life we need people who understand both - tech and ethical questions.
Lorena started her talk detailing how one typical property of human decision making involves inconsistency, otherwise known as noise: Where machine made decisions can be either accurate and consistent or biased and consistent, human decisions are either inconsistent but more or less accurate or inconsistent and biased. Experiments that showed this level of inconsistency are plenty, ranging from time estimates for tasks being different depending on weather, mood, time of day, being hungry or not up to judges being influenced by similar factors in court.
One interesting aspect: While in order to measure bias, we need to be aware of the right answer, this is not necessary for measuring inconsistency. Here's where monitoring decisions can be helpful to palliate human inconsistencies.
In order to understand the impact of automated decision making on society one needs a framework to evaluate that - the field of ethics provides multiple such frameworks. Ethics comes in three flavours: Meta ethics dealing with what is good, what are ethical requests? Normative ethics deals with standards and principles. Applied ethics deals with applying ethics to concrete situations.
In western societies there are some common approaches to answering ethics related questions: Utilitarian ethics asks which outputs we want to achieve. Human rights based ethics asks which inputs are permissible - what obligations do we have, what things should never be done? Virtue ethics asks what kind of human being one wants to be, what does behaviour say about one's character? These approaches are being used by standardisation groups at e.g. DIN and ISO to answer ethical questions related to automation.
For tackling ethics and automation today there are a couple viewpoints, looking at questions like finding criteria within the context of designing and processing of data (think GDPR), algorithmic transparency, prohibiting the use of certain data points for decision making. The importance of those questions is amplified now because automated decision making makes it's way into medicine, information sharing, politics - often separating the point of decision making from the point of acting. One key assumption in ethics is that you should always be able to state why you took a certain action - except for actions taken by mentally ill people, so far this was generally true. Now there are many more players in the decision making process: People collecting data, coders, people preparing data, people generating data, users of the systems developed. For regulators this setup is confusing: If something goes wrong, who is to be held accountable? Often the problem isn't even in the implementation of the system but in how it's being used and deployed. This confusion leads to challenges for society: Democracy does not understand collectives, it understands individuals acting. Algorithms however do not understand individuals, but instead base decisions on comparing individuals to collectives and inferring how to move forward from there. This property does impact individuals as well as society.
For understanding which types of biases make it into algorithmic decision making systems that are built on top of human generated training data one needs to understand where bias can come from:
The uncertainty bias is born out of a lack of training data for specific groups amplifying outlier behaviour, as well as the risk for over-fitting. One-sided criteria can serve to reinforce a bias that is generated by society: Even ruling out gender, names and images from hiring decisions a focus on years of leadership experience gives an advantage to those more likely exposed to leadership roles - typically neither people of colour, nor people from poorer districts. One-sided hardware can make interaction harder - think face recognition systems having trouble identifying non-white humans, having trouble identifying non-male humans.
In the EU we focus on the precautionary principle where launching new technology means showing it's not harmful. This though proves more and more complex as technology becomes entrenched in everyday life.
What other biases do humans have? There's information biases, where humans tend to reason based on analogy, based on the illusion of control (overestimating oneself, downplaying risk, downplaying uncertainty), there's an escalation of committment (a tendency to stick to a decision even if it's the wrong one), there are single outcome calculations.
For cognitive biases are related to framing, criteria selection (we tend to value quantitative criteria over qualitative criteria), rationality. There's risk biases (uncertainties about positive outcomes typically aren't seen as risks, risk tends to be evaluated by magnitude rather than by a combination of magnitude and probability). There's attitude based biases: In experiments senior managers considered risk taking as part of their job. The level of risk taken depended on the amount of positive performance feedback given to a certain person: The better people believe they are, the more risk they are willing to take. Uncertainty biases relate to the difference between the information I believe I need vs. the information available - in experiments humans made worse decisions the more data and information was available to them.
General advise: Beware of your biases...